Simplified diagram of your own biannual life duration of P. cimiciformis. Sexual breeding happen on P. terebinthus trees, the number 1 server, in which doing four some other morphs are present. Of those years, three create into the distinct galls that they trigger in their host’s leaves. Toward the termination of summer, the very last generation produced from inside the galls consists of winged aphids you to definitely fly for the sources many gramineous variety, the second machine. Truth be told there, they initiate a sequence of means-house wingless parthenogenetic generations including several morphs: the new round (RM) therefore the flat (FM) morphs, correspondingly. These morphs participate in mutualistic contacts which have ants of your genus Tetramorium. In summer, a few winged morphs can happen. You to disperses the newest clone to the fresh grasses whereas, in the nations where P. terebinthus can be acquired, a moment winged morph often travel back to the key host giving delivery with the sexual morphs. Afg, find a hookup in Tacoma Washington apterous fundatrigeniae; Age, eggs; Fx, fundatrix; Meters, male; Sf, intimate lady; Sxp, sexuparae; Wfg, winged fundatrigeniae; Wvg, winged virginoparae. The question draw indicates unclear phenology information during the root-house phase (Lorsque Text message and you can Fig. S1).
The aim of this research was to explore the possibility functional need for this polyphenism happening within the means-dwelling stage of P. cimiciformis existence cycle. I defined the type of every aphid morph’s interactions with ants of your genus Tetramorium, its main tending ants (7, 10, 11), and particularly which have Tetramorium semilaeve, perhaps one of the most plentiful ant species inside the holm-oak woods and associated habitats in the Iberian Peninsula (12).